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Ask an expert - about acupuncture - How often?

18 questions

A:  There are no hard and fast rules about the frequency of treatment. It is fair to say, however, that clinical practice in China is radically different from that of Western Europe. It would not be at all unusual to have a course of ten treatments daily for a problem like yours, although this would perhaps be more likely immediately after the first tendinopathy developed.

In China, though, acupuncture is an accepted part of the state healthcare system so cost is not an issue, and in any event this is what practitioners have always done. In the UK, where cost is a factor, it is much more usual to have treatment weekly, occasionally bi-weekly if someone has an acute problem which needs more intensive treatment. This does not lessen the efficacy of the treatment; the intention is to trigger and reinstate the body's own healing systems, and this can be achieved just as well over time.

The key thing when a chronic condition is being treated is to set clear outcomes (range of movement, analogue scales of pain experienced, and so on) to determine whether there has been any improvement, and to set regular review periods to assess progress. Most BAcC members tend to use the four or five treatment mark as a point at which to make a judgement about how things are going, and to agree with the patient about continuing rather than just making repeat bookings week after week.

The important thing, if you have already started treatment and have any concerns about treatment, is to discuss them with the practitioner. This avoids any build up of frustration or annoyance if things aren't progressing as well as you would like.

A:  A great deal depends on what you are having acupuncture for. In China, for example, where acupuncture treatment is an accepted form of care within the national health service and free at point of delivery, it is not unusual to have a course of treatment daily for ten days, and for some conditions this is always the recommendation. In the UK cost and convenience make this less of an option, and most practitioners will only see a patient twice or three times a week for an acute situation for which they believe the patient needs more frequent treatment. This would usually run to two or possibly three sessions a week.

We have heard of colleagues who have treated daily as would be the case in China for conditions like an acute back sprain, but this is quite rare and was not done with any sense of commercial advantage, simply a reflection of the fact that the practitioners had unlimited access to their own clinics and the patients were very local.

We would have some reservations about anyone treating more than twice a week for a long term chronic condition unless there was a clear clinical rationale. If anyone has any concerns about this level of frequency of treatment a reputable practitioner should be able to give an extremely clear explanation of why they are treating this often.

It isn't really possible to overdo treatment, but there would soon come a point with over-frequent treatment, other than for acute conditions, where it was difficult to get sensible feedback. We often talk of throwing a stone in a pond and waiting for the ripples to cease before assessing the impact. Not a great analogy, we have to say, but gets across the message that it takes a little while for the impact of treatment to become clear. If someone is treating with too small a gap between sessions it is not always easy to see what progress has been made and how sustainable it is. It could not do harm, though, and there would be no risks associated with over-frequent treatment.

Q:  I am currently at university and putting together a research protocol using acupuncture for TMJ pain relief. I have searched hi and low but can't seem to find a recommended amount of acupuncture for pain relief. Has one been published or can you tell me whether one or two treatments a week is more effective and why for my rational.

A:  We are not aware of any strict rules for the number of treatments someone may need each week for pain relief in these kinds of conditions. A great deal depends on the culture in which the treatment is offered. In China, for example, where treatment is often delivered in an out-patient setting in a hospital it is not at all unusual to be given a course of ten treatments with treatment administered once a day. Some of the high street shops in the UK tried to replicate this practice but ran into a certain amount of consumer resistance because they did not discount the treatment.
Most practitioners make a judgement, based on clinical experience, on the amount of treatment necessary to develop a momentum which preserves the treatment effects. Very crudely put, acute conditons might be treated twice or three times a week initially to bring them under control, whereas more chronic pain might be treated once a week. If you are designing a protocol, the distinction between acute and chronic pain may form a part of your design and protocol, and this will have implications for how often you treat, as will the ease of getting your trial subjects to the treatment setting - more difficulty means higher dropout rates.
There are no textbook 'optimal' solutions, however. The decision about how often to treat would form a part of the design which the researcher would have to make a case for in establishing a sufficiently robust protocol to assess efficacy or effectiveness.  

Q: I have had 13 sessions with someone practicing at a Nuffield hospital. He thinks I should sign up for another 14 when I go next time. He hasn't looked at my tongue or checked my pulse etc, and he uses a TENS type of machine on the needles. Is this OK? I really cannot say whether this is helping me with my back pain as he doesn't advocate much housework and I have to lie on my back for 40 minutes, 3 times a day.

A:  This is a rather difficult one for us to answer. There are a great many ways to practise acupuncture, and not all systems use tongue and pulse diagnosis. There are, for example, some Japanese systems which use palpation of the limbs and trunk as a diagnostic tool, and other systems where the western diagnosis is translated straight into a point selection which is then used for the treatment. Some modern Chinese practitioners work in this way, and many of these use electroacupuncture machines instead of needles. If you are asking whether this is legitimate treatment, the answer is that it could be. However, if you wanted someone who used tongue and pulse diagnosis, then the choice would have to be to go to another practitioner who works as you wish, or to ask the existing practitioner if he can, and will, work in this way.
It does seem like a great deal of treatment without any discernible change, although of course without knowing the exact clinical presentation it is not really fair for us to comment. We would normally hope that there would be more frequent reviews of treatment, and clearer outcomes, but there are many experienced members who have been working for over forty years whose own skills and experience are exemplary. It may well be that this is the opinion of one such, and to be respected.
This may also explain the advice to rest three times a day. Current orthodox medicine policy is to encourage movement and to avoid bed rest, which is thought to hinder recovery. If someone has had a great deal of clinical experience and this works for them, then it would be prudent to follow their advice.
The bottom line does appear to us, though, that you are not entirely happy with the way things are going, and the best advice we can offer is that you raise this as an issue with the practitioner himself. If he responds well to your concerns and you feel reassured, all well and good. If you are not satisfied with his responses, then we would probably suggest that you find another practitioner.


Q:Would it ever be a useful thing to have acupuncture every day - if someone was very ill, for example.


A:  This is very much the case in China, where acupuncture is often administered in a ten-day course for acute conditions. The big difference, of course, is that acupuncture is funded within the hospitals and delivered free at point of treatment. Many BAcC members will treat daily if there is an acute condition, but this is not always possible if practitioners work on different sites in a week and can't always be available every day at the same location.
The only sticking point we hear of is the fee structure. Most practitioners come to an arrangement where this is an affordable option by setting an agreed fee for a whole course of treatment for an emergency or acute situation. Our hope is that this is done with sensitivity, although we have no direct influence over what members charge.

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